The Portraits

of

John Reinhold Forster

and

George Forster

 

A Catalog

Tracing the Origin of Each Portrait

 

 

by

 

George Bertschinger

 

george@georgebertschinger.com

 

Improved website edition of the desktop publication of 1995

 

Los Gatos, 2004

 

 

Clicking a blue link lets you jump to the designated location.

Clicking your back button takes you back where you were before.

 

 

 

 

                        Table of Contents

 

 

The Men

The Portraits

The Smith Group

The Rigaud Group

The Berger Subgroup

The Graff Group of  J. R. F.

The Tischbein and Graff Group of  G. F.

Other Pictures

Summary

Übersicht

References Cited

Illustration Sources

Portrait Index

 

 

 

                            The Men

 

 

John Reinhold Forster (1729-1798) and his son George Forster (1754-

1794) were travelers, naturalists, writers, and philosophers.

J. R. Forster, formerly a pastor in Polish Prussia, was commissioned by

Catherine the Great to examine the German settlements on the Volga.  He trav-

eled there with his barely eleven year-old son George.  They later moved to

England.  Six years later John Reinhold accompanied Captain Cook on his epoch-

making Second Voyage to the South Seas, again taking George along.  They were

the expedition's naturalists.  Afterwards they held academic posts in Germany

and Poland.

John Reinhold, a superb geographer, wrote about zoological, geological,

and oceanographic, as well as a wide array of anthropological matters of the

South Seas and other regions.  But his eminence as a scholar was impaired by

conceit and high-handed conduct.  We must keep in mind, to be sure, that his

character included charming and noble qualities as well.

George's temperament was of a gentler disposition.  His literary output

included travel descriptions and botanical subjects.  It expanded into philos-

ophy, aesthetics, and sociology.  His fame overshadowed that of his father.

But his popularity in Germany collapsed when he carried Enlightenment ideas to

the extreme by taking a leading part in the Jacobin Club of Mainz, which

sought to turn this city over to revolutionary France.

Both men were eminent scholars, but for centuries neither reached the

renown that their scientific and literary achievements warranted.  Only in the last

  half century has their standing been rehabilitated somewhat.

 

 

 

 

 

The Portraits

 

 

              The two men were pictured on more than fifty occasions.  These pictures have never been catalogued before.  They are here listed, described, and discussed.  The discussions focus on the source of each portrait.  They help

clarify the disarray, and produce a few unexpected results.

Over the years, the chronic disesteem of the two authors has stifled

Forster research.  And, as little attention was paid to the subject of portraiture, it is understandable that confusion reigns about the source of some depictions.  There is even evidence that an original painting was misascribed to another artist.  These mistakes were never recognized, let alone rectified.

John Reinhold and George Forster spent much of their lives together, and several portraits depict both.  All of their likenesses are combined in one

list. The persons are identified by using their initials J. R. F. and G. F.

An examination of all extant depictions reveals that only five were

drawn from nature (possibly aside from some silhouettes); the others were

obtained from the five.

Three of the original pictures are of  J. R. F. alone:

1.0   Smith-Wedgwood medallion                 1775

2.0   Another Smith-Wedgwood medallion    1775

5.0   Graff painting                                        1781

One painting shows both Forsters:

3.0   Rigaud painting                                      1780

One painting represents G. F. alone:

7.0   Frankfurt painting                                  1784

These prototypes form the basis for dividing the portraits of this catalog into groups:

 

The Smith Group

The Rigaud Group

The Berger Subgroup

The Graff Group of  J. R. F.

The Tischbein and Graff Group of  G. F.

Other Pictures

 


 

 

 

                           The Smith Group

 

                    The earliest portraits of J. R. F. that we have were made by

Joachim Smith, a London sculptor, wax modeler, and gem cutter.

His vital dates are unknown.  Smith fashioned two different wax

models of J. R. F. for Josiah Wedgwood (1720-1795), the

celebrated pottery manufacturer.

A short digression on Wedgwood's jasper ware manufacture

explains the use of Smith's wax models:

Wedgwood invented and developed the fabrication of miniature

clay medallions.  These consist of white relief figures on a dark

background and look like cameos.  Some of the figures are por-

traits of illustrious persons.  To procure models for the figures

Wedgwood relied on several artists, one of whom was Joachim

Smith.

Wedgwood pressed Smith's waxen relief models into wet clay,

to obtain intaglio molds.  After the molds had hardened, he pres-

sed white clay into them.  This gave him relief duplicates of the

wax models.  Then the white figures, still wet, were affixed to a

darker background, called jasper.  Now the medallions were ready

for the kiln.

Joachim Smith made his miniature wax reliefs from paintings

and engravings of prominent persons.  Only on rare exceptions did

he produce the wax portraits from nature.  Since no sources are

known that might have served as prototypes for his two Forster

portraits, it is possible that they constitute such an exception.

 

The size of the jasper medals of J. R. F. varies somewhat. It

averages 4 by 3 inches.

Of the two portrait medallions, the one with the Forstera

sedifolia sprig (a plant which Linnaeus named after J. R. F ) is

undoubtedly the better.  It is no wonder that it was used exten-

sively in later representations.  Here we see J. R. F. at the

height of his career:  Just having returned from the celebrated

South Seas voyage, he appears exuberant.  People acquainted with

Forster s personality will in the physiognomy easily recognize

his characteristic traits: intellectual, forceful, and self-

assured.  They can even perceive his notorious shortcoming: an

overbearing attitude.

The portrait of the second medallion (2.0) reflects a simi-

lar mood, and is hardly less lifelike than the first.  But it is

less attractive as an artistic subject.  For this reason it has

 remained virtually unknown.

 

 

1.0  Portrait Medallion by Joachim Smith   (1775 or 1776)

 

          Designed by Joachim Smith (fl. 1756 – 1803), manufactured

       by Josiah Wedgwood in 1776.

             Head and shoulders in profile to right; Forstera sedifolia in coat pocket.

 

 

 

                    Smith 1.0                                                            Smith 2.0

 

 

            The following institutions have medallions:

 

      Mitchell Library, Sydney, Australia

1.      White on blue jasper ware, signature "IS" on base of arm. Beddie 4429.

 

                  Reprod.       Iredale, G. F. Paintings, 1925: 53.

Hoare, Tactl. Philo.: 103

                                      Hoare, Res. Journ.: 1

 

            2. White on blue jasper ware.  Beddie 4433.

 

      Dixson Library, Sydney, Australia

            White on green jasper ware.  Unsigned; lacking sprig of Forstera sedifolia. Beddie 4432.

 

      Nottingham Castle Museum, Nottingham, England

            Unsigned; "FORSTER" stenciled below portrait.

 

                  Reprod.       Reilly, Robin, and Savage: Wedgwood: The Portrait Medallions,

London 1973.

 

 

 

1.1   Whates caricature  (1780)

 

            Vital dates of caricaturist unknown.

 

            Copper engraving showing J. R. F. riding backwards on a donkey,

      followed by  son George, wife Justine, and five more  children. A balloon

      emerging from J. R. F.'s mouth has him utter "I vil tel de Kinck of

      you."   This refers to his threats on the voyage to complain directly to

      the king.  Bottom inscription: "Whates delt - Doctor Faustus exeudit -

      Robinson [engraver]".

 

            J. R. F.'s head and shoulders are clearly derived from the Smith-

      Wedgwood medallion (1.0), complete with Forstera sedifolia.  G. F.

      appears in an oblique front view.

 

                  Repr. G. F. Werke: 13:128

                            Hoare, Tact. Philo.: 176

 

 

1.2  Medal of J. R. F. by Abraham Abramson  (1777)

Abramson (1754-1811) was the Royal Prussian Medalist at Berlin.

The former existence of this medal, if indeed it existed, rests

solely on a note in Meusel, Museum 9(1789):473 (repeated in Goedeke

7:239): "Abramson in Berlin struck a medal after his head in 1777."  In

1777 only the Smith-Wedgwood medallion could have served Abramson as a

model .

The standard work on Abramson (Hoffmann, Tassilo: Jacob Abraham

und Abraham Abramson - 55 Jahre Berliner Medaillenkunst, Frankfurt 1927)

does not mention J. R. F. This leaves room for serious doubt whether

Abramson ever made such a medal.

 

1.3  Akademisches Taschenbuch silhouette of J. R. F.  (1791)

Artist unknown.

Head and shoulders facing left, in oval ornamented with ribbon and

name plate "I. R. FORSTER".  3210.  Is this Diepenbroick 8204?

The silhouette stems from the Smith - Wedgwood medallion (1.0),

perhaps indirectly.

Pub 1.in Akademisches Taschenbuch auf das Jahr 1791.

 

1.4  Engraving of J. R. F. by Halle  (1795)

Halle of Berlin, vital dates unknown, called himself "Halle

Berlin".

Profile facing right, after Berger (4.1), with Forstera sedifolia

in coat pocket.  Similar surround as Berger etching.  Name plate: "D.

IOH. REINHOLD FORSTER". Signed: "Gestochen von Halle Berlin 1795".

Diepenbroick 8200, 8201.

Publ. in Krünitz, Joh. Georg: Oekonomisch-technologische

Encyklopädie, 2nd ed., 1804): frontisp.

 

 

1.5  Warrington Worthies silhouette of J. R. F.  (1853)

The unknown person who drew the silhouette probably worked from

the Wedgwood medallion.

Head and shoulders.

Appeared in Warrington Worthies, collected and arranged by James

Kendrick, M.D., Warrington, 1853. Pl. 3.

 

 

 

1.6    Wissenschaftliche Beiträge silhouette of J. R. F.  (1981)

 

Head and shoulders, looking left.  Derived from one of the Smith-

Wedgwood group.

Appeared in Georg Forster, Wissenschaftliche Beiträge der Martin-

Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 42(1981): 21. Captioned "Georg [!]

Forster" (label confounded with that of next illustration).

 

 

2.0  Another portrait medallion by Joachim Smith   (1775 or 1776)

Designed by J. Smith, manufactured by J. Wedgwood.

Head and shoulders in profile facing left.  Forster, slightly

smiling, wears only a silk shirt.

 

The Nottingham Castle Museum has a specimen.

 

                   Reprod.       Reilly, Robin, and Savage: Wedgwood: The Portrait

 Medallions, London 1973.

 

 

********************

 

 

     For further developments of the Smith – Wedgwood portrait of J. R. F. see the following double portraits:

 

4.1       Etching by Berger                    

4.2       Ephemeriden Engraving                              

4.4       Wood Engraving by G. H. & K.                 

 

 

 

The Rigaud Group

 

John Francis Rigaud (1742-1810) composed a magnificent painting, the only one that shows both Forsters together.  They are at work: drawing birds in a resplendent scene in what was thought to be Tahiti, but is actually New Zealand.

"Rigaud, a member of the academy, was born in the French

part of Switzerland.  He has worked in London for a long time.  He

is praised as a diligent portraitist ... This  unpretentious artist

paints with a forceful, true stroke which disdains the artifices

of his academic colleagues.  Perhaps this is why he fails to at-

tract the attention of those who can only be impressed with heavy

highlights and glaring contrasts."

Thus wrote G. F. about the painter who painted him a decade earlier.

(Geschichte der Kunst in England vom Jahre 1789, G. F. Werke 7, 138f.)

The scene of the painting (3.0), when mentioned at all, was always given

as Tahitian; but plants, birds, and the sailing boat pictured on it belong to

New Zealand.  (Forstera sedifolia on hat, Anthornis melanura in hand, Callaeas

cinera, Philesturnus carunculatus, and Prosthemadera novaseelandiae on rock.)

There is no doubt that the setting is intended to be in New Zealand.

The two Forsters sat for the artist in London.  J. R. F. wears the same

clothes as on the Smith-Wedgwood medallion (1.0), with the addition of a smart

hat.  The Forstera sedifolia sprig which Smith had placed in his coat pocket

is now stuck under the hatband.  G. F. is elegantly dressed in a shirt with

ruffled trim.  We shall pursue this detail in later renderings.

No copy has ever been made of  J. R. F. alone from the Rigaud painting,

aside from the two drawings mentioned below (3.4 and 3.5).  But for G. F. see

the Berger subgroup (next section).

 

3.0   Oil painting on canvas by J. F. Rigaud  (1780)

John Francis Rigaud (1742-1810), born in Italy of French descent, was a historical and portrait painter in London.

The picture shows a front view of J. R. F. standing, a dead bird

in hand; and G. F. sitting, in profile to left, drawing the bird. The

painting measures 126 by 101 cm, and is signed in the left bottom corner

"painted by I. F. Rigaud London 1780". Fiedler 1199.

Owner: Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Berlin.  The canvas passed

from J. R. F. through his daughter Iphigenie Sprengel and her daughter

Iphigenie von Hoffnass to the Rheinberger family.  Unfortunately, the

painting had been inaccessible to reproducing artists for a very long

time.

 

 

                                                          3.0 Rigaud

 

Color reproductions:

Fiedler, Horst et al.: G. F., Wörlitz, 1975.

(Front cover). Measures 13 by 10.5 cm.

Hoare, Res. Journ. (1, frontisp.). 13 by 10.5 cm.

Gray, William R.: "Voyages to Paradise", Nat. Geo-

graphic Society, Spec. Issue, Washington, 1981: 106.

18 by 23 cm.

 

3.1   Oil painting on wood   (before 1799)

Smaller copy of proceeding item (3.0). It measures about 22 by

16 cm.  Fiedler 1200.

George's face is more corpulent.  Although the unknown painter's

reproducing skill was not outstanding, this is a tolerable copy.

Nonetheless, it is regrettable that this copy, rather than the original

(3.0), became the model for many reproductions.

Owner unknown.

B & W reproduction:

Homann, Hermann ed., Entdeckungsreise nach Tahiti,

Tübingen 1979: frontisp.

 

 

3.2   Chalk and crayon drawing of G. F. alone

After Rigaud (3.0). Black crayon, heightened with white chalk, on

gray paper. Fiedler 1198.

This portrait, as well as the three following it, are not prelimi-

nary sketches for the Rigaud painting, as Fiedler suggests, but are

derived from it.

Owner: Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England.

Reprod. in Kersten, Weltumsegler: frontisp.

 

3.3   Another chalk & crayon drawing of G. F.

Like 3.2.  N.i. Fiedler.

Owner: Regula von Greyerz, Bern.

 

3.4   Chalk & crayon drawing of J. R. F. alone

Also derived from Rigaud (3.0).  It forms a matching set with 3.3.

Same owner as 3.3.

 

 3.5   Another chalk & crayon drawing of J. R. F.

Like 3.4. 

F. von Herder owned it in 1886. From it a hundred

photographic copies were distributed by way of subscription. (Herder,

"Icones plantarum" in Acta Horti Petropolitani, 9:2 (1886) 460).

Whereabouts unknown.

 

 3.6  Copper engraving of both Forsters by D.Beyel  (1799)

Daniel Beyel (born 1760), copper engraver, produced a most

pleasing engraving, not after the original Rigaud painting (3.0), but

after its copy (3.1). Fiedler 1201.

      Reproduced in   G. F. Werke (4:Pl.1).

                                         Beaglehole, Journals (2:xxxix).

 

3.7   Wood engraving of both Forsters by D. R.  (1879)

Large copy after Beyel engraving (3.6), 21 by 16.4 cm, signed in

lower left "X.A. v. D.R.".  410.  Singer (1931) 25806.

            Published in Daheim, 1879: 773.

 

3.8  Pen drawing by Rudolf Grüttner  (1956)

After one of the Rigaud group.

            Published in Miethke, Helmut, Bewegte Jahre, Berlin 1956: 29.

           

3.9  Postage stamp of G. F.  (1979)

Artist unnamed.

            Postage stamp of the German Democratic Republic, showing portrait

and sailing ship on light blue background. 2.1 by 3.8 cm.  Lettering:

DDR - 1754 - 1794 - Georg Forster - 35 [postage] - 1979.

The profile, facing left, is derived, perhaps indirectly, from the Rigaud

painting.  George's head is upright, as described in the next section.

 

 

 

The Berger Subgroup

 

 There is a curious etching the source of which has never been correctly identified:

In 1782 the etching of both Forsters by Daniel Berger appeared. Being a secondary picture itself, it gave rise to a number of tertiary depictions. That is why I classify them in a subgroup. It is to be determined to which group this subgroup belongs.

The likeness of J. R. F. is clearly derived from the Smith-Wedgwood medallion. But where the portrait of G. F. originated has remained obscure until now.

In reality, the prototype of Berger's portrait of G. F. has been in plain view all along.  It is the Rigaud painting (3.0). When the two are compared, it is easy to see the resemblance.

Why was it not obvious until now?  Berger skillfully created the illusion of a new portrait by making four simple changes:

o He reversed the picture left to right, as engravers often do.

o He turned the head of G. F. from a leaning-forward position to an upright

position.

o He made nose, lips, and chin of the younger, fuller George slightly less

round to give him a more mature look.

o He added a silken neck ribbon, which was fashionable then.

 

                                      

                              Detail from 3.0 Rigaud            Detail from 4.1 Berger

The alterations effectively concealed the true origin of the engraving.

But note that Berger did not bother to change the coiffure, ruffled shirt, or

coat.

If the story had ended with this poorly executed etching, we would not

have a problem.  But the Berger portrait served as a model for a number of

better depictions.  Twenty-one years afterwards an unknown engraver created

a finer rendition of it (4.2).  Then, in 1854, the Weger engraving of G. F. alone

appeared.  It is masterfully done.  Truly attractive, it imparts the illusion of

being a faithful likness.  No doubt Weger improved George's physiognomy.  He

shows us G. F. as we like to imagine him.  The pleasant and plausible aspect

of the portrait made it popular with modern publishers.

Rigaud's ruffled shirt and Berger's neck ribbon remain unchanged

throughout this group.

Now we must turn our attention to the mistaken view that plagued the

scene for hundreds of years.  Since the depictions of the Berger subgroup

lacked a recognizable source, one had to be found. Anton Graff was known to

have painted a likeness of G. F.; and it had been considered lost, as we shall

see below, under The Tischbein and Graff Group of George Forster.  Therefore,

it was quite convenient to link the etching without a source to the painting that had

seemingly vanished.  This was done repeatedly in Forster literature (by Zincke,

Kersten, Fiedler, G. F. Werke, etc).  But, as if this erroneous connection needed

further denunciation, it is chronologically impossible: Graff painted G. F. only in

1784, whereas its supposed copy, the Berger etching, had already been published

in 1782.

The confusion does not end here. In the Tischbein-Graff controversy the Graff painting is up to more mischief. See the section The Tischbein and Graff Group of George Forster.

 

4.0      Engraving of G. F. alone by Daniel Berger   (1779)

Daniel Berger (1744 - 1824) was a reproducing copper engraver whose

technique combined etching with engraving.

No specimen of this portrait has come down to us. But its existence may be inferred from a passage in a letter that G. F. wrote to his publisher Spener: "Please send me a copy of my portrait by Berger." This casual remark of June 5, 1779 may be taken to mean that Berger had produced an engraving of G. F. alone as early as 1779.

It was probably the model for the G. F. picture in the 1782 etching

(next entry).

 

4.1      Etching of both Forsters by Daniel Berger   (1782)

The etching shows heads and shoulders in a round medallion (8 cm

dia.) with decoration and massive name plate beneath: "IOHANN REINHOLD

FORSTER - IOHANN GEORG FORSTER."   Profiles to right.  Signed at bottom:

"Von D. Berger Geätz. 1782" (Etched by D. Berger 1782).

Fiedler 1202.  Goedeke 7: 239.  16'°.

J. R. F.'s portrait is obviously fashioned after the Smith-Wedgwood

medallion (1.0), faithfully conserving several details.

G. F.'s portrait stems probably from Berger's engraving of 1779 (4.0),

which, in turn, derives from the Rigaud painting (3.0), as shown in

the outline above.

The etching of both Forsters appeared in:

Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, 1782 (51:front.).

Reproduced in:

Könneke, Gustav, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der Deutschen

National literatur, 2nd ed., Marburg, 1895 (325).

G. F. Werke 13:386

 

   

 

                4.1 Berger                                     4.4 GH & XKA

 

4.2   Ephemeriden engraving of both Forsters   (1803)

Stipple-engraved oval without any surround.  Very similar to

Berger engraving (4.1), but heads only.  Profiles reversed (facing

left).  Oval 9.5 by 6.9 cm.

Appeared in Allgemeine geographische Ephemeriden, 12 (1803):

frontisp.

              

 

4.3   Relief portrait of G. F.   (Date unknown)

Bas-relief in what looks like white clay, in wooden frame, by

unknown artist. Profile looking left. Fiedler 1205.

Reintjes, Fiedler, G. F. Werke, and others mistakenly suggested

that this portrait was fashioned after the "lost" Graff painting. It is derived

from one of the Berger group.

Former owner: Theodor von Greyerz, Frauenfeld,  Switzerland.

Present whereabouts unknown.

Reproduced in:

Reintjes, "Blick ins Ganze der Natur," Orion, Oct.

1935, 19/20.

G. F. Werke 15 (1981): 16. This is a better reproduction.

 

 

         4.3 Relief portrait

 

4.4   Wood engraving of both Forsters by G. H. & X. K. A.  (1896)

Finely copied from Berger's etching of 1782 (4.1), incl. marble

surround. Signed in lower left corner: GH & XKA. "X" seems to mean wood

engraver (xylographer). See ill. above.

Publ. in: Geiger, Ludwig, "Aus Therese Hubers Herzensleben,"

Illustrierte deutsche Monatshefte, 1896 (633).

 

4.5   Steel engraving of G. F. by August Weger   (1854)

August Weger (1823 - 1892) was a steel engraver at Leipzig.

As we might expect, the engraving has been thought a representa-

tion of the "lost" Graft painting. But again, it definitely pertains to

the Berger set.  It is therefore a copy of a copy of a painting. And we

shall see that it, in turn, was subsequently copied many times.

Conforming to the panegyrical tone of the work in which it was

published, Weger's portrait is flattering.  It shows a well-coiffured

and well-dressed Forster, profile to right.    16mo. Fiedler 1206

Appeared in: Moleschott, Jacob, G. F., 1854: frontisp.

Reproduced in: G. F. Werke 14:96.

 

                               4.5 Weger

 

 

4.6 Another engraving by August Weger

Similar to 4.5.

Owner: Akademie der Wissenschaften, Zentralinstitut für

Literaturgeschichte, Berlin.

Reproduced in: Fiedler, Horst et al. G. F. ... Seine Beziehungen

zu Wörlitz, 1975 (1).

 

 

4.7   Gouache painting of George Forster by S. H.   (No date)

Nothing is known about the lay artist S. H.

Oval picture in subdued colors, profile to left,

13 by 10 cm, mounted in dark embroidered cardboard mat.

Inscribed at bottom: "Georg Forster 1784."  Artist's initials on

right: "S. H. fec."  The caption "G. F. 1784" obviously means "G. F. as

he appeared in 1784."  This is the year Anton Graff painted him in

Dresden.  Of course, S. H. copied from a portrait of the Berger sub-

group, thinking it was derived from the Graff painting.

Owner: Stadtarchiv Mainz.

B & W repro. in: G. F. Werke (14:144).

Color repro. in:    Reichardt: [86]].

 

4.8  Painting of G. F. by Ernst Hader    (1897 or earlier).

Profile looking left.

This painting is obviously derived from the Berger subgroup.

It most closely resembles the Ephemeriden engraving (4.2).

Whereabouts unknown.

The Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna has a sepia-

toned photograph, 8.5 by 6 cm. (Bild-Archiv und Portraitsammlung

Pf 3812: B(1).  The card shows a signature (G. Forster) and: "E.

HADER pinxit - Gesetzlich Geschützt. Phot. u. Verl. v. Sophus Williams

Berlin 1897."

 

4.9   Roter Faden outline drawing of G. F.  (1976)

This drawing, placed on a Tricolor background, is derived from the

Weger engraving (4.5).

   Publ. in: Roter Faden: 25.

 

4.10  Relief plaque of 0. F. by Bernhard Schellbach   (1984)

Round ceramic plaque, 98 mm dia., blue.  Inscribed around margin

"GEORG FORSTER" (right) and "1754-1794" (left).

Profile looking to right, finely sculpted.  It is derived from the

Weger engraving (4.5).    Reichardt 316, No.319.

Owner: Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Wörlitz, Oranienbaum und

Luisium.

 

 

                4.10 Schellbach

 

 

 

 

       The Graff Group of John Reinhold Forster

 

 

Whenever one of the J. R. F. paintings by Anton Graff is mentioned, it

is called "the" painting, as if there were only one.  Actually, there are

three: one of unknown location, one in Halle, and one in Berlin.  This is

evident from their published reproductions.  Although all versions display the

identical pose, each has a quite noticeable difference in facial expression.

Copyists tend to flatter their subjects by idealizing their features.

This they have in common with the creators of original portraits.  But the

enhancement now accumulates.  In accordance with this principle, the painting

reproduced in Kersten (5.0) is likely to be the original.  The original was

done in 1781, or earlier, because in that year I. F. Bause made his well-known

copper engraving from it.

The ownership history of these paintings is fragmentary. "The" painting

was considered lost at one time, but in 1898 "it" was found in Düsseldorf

(Goedeke, Nachträge: 806).  Then the bookseller Otto Schütze owned it.  The

Ill. Zeitung engraving (5.7) identifies it as the Halle painting (5.1).  In

1957, Kersten (:398) reported "it" in the possession of Joseph Jans, an art

dealer in Lucerne.  This time "it" was No. 5.0. Jans sold the painting later,

perhaps to America.  Its whereabouts is again unknown.

 

 

5.0   Oil painting of unknown location, by Anton Graff  (ca. 1780)

Anton Graff (1736 - 1813) was the classical portrait painter of

eighteenth-century Germany.

J. R. F. in front view, with head and eyes turned left. 55 by 48 cm.

Of the three oil paintings (5.0 - 5.2), this one resembles the

Bause engraving (5.3) most.  This reinforces the already mentioned

probability that it is the original.  And its mere excellence suggests

that it stems from the masterful hand of Anton Graff.  This portrait of

Forster is considered one of Graff's best portraits.

Whereabouts unknown.  Last known location, as mentioned above:

Lucerne.

B & W reproduction in Kersten, Weltumsegler: 32.

  

         5.0 (Lucerne)                              5.1 Halle                                      5.2 Berlin

 

5.1   Halle copy, after Anton Graff

Same pose as 5.0.  Forster's nose is here straightened.

Owner: Städtisches Museum, Halle.

B & W reproduction in Rave :69.

 

5.2  Berlin copy, after Anton Graff

Same pose as 5.0 and 5.1.  Here we see J. R. F. with his eyes less

open and chin more pointed.

Owner: Staatliche Galerie Moritzburg, Halle und Staatsbibliothek

Berlin.

B & W reproduction in Hoare, Tactl. Philo.: 103.

 

5.3   Copper engraving by I. F. Bause    (1781)

Johann Friedrich Bause (1738 - 1814) was a copper engraver of

great renown.  He mainly produced portraits of famous men, most from the

paintings of Anton Graff.

The likeness of J. R. F. is after Graff's painting (5.0).

Reversed (facing right), it is contained in an architectural device with

an oval stone frame, surrounded by a Forstera sedifolia plant and ivy.

The inscription on the stone frame reads "I R FORSTER."  The note below

the engraving: "Ant. Graff pinx. - zu finden in Leipzig bey Bause - IF

Bause sculps. Leipz. 1781 - Diese Pflantze in nehmlicher Grösse hat Herr

Forster in Neu-Seeland entdeckt und Linne ihm zu Ehren Forstera

benennt."  Small fol. (27.7 by 19.6cm).

Reproduced in: Hoare, Tactl. Philo.: 102.

  

                         5.3 Bause                                                      5.6 Krey

5.4   Copper engraving by de Mayr   (1784)

Johann Friedrich von Mayr, copper engraver at Kassel, died ca.

1809.

Oval marble frame and name plate "I R FORSTER," similar to Bause

engraving (5.3), but lacking vegetation surround.  Signed at right bottom:

"Gravé par de Mayr."  8vo.

Published in: Papst, Johann G. F., Die Entdeckung des fünften

Weltteils, Nürnberg 2 (1784): frontisp.

 

 

5.5   Medaillon engraved by Liebe

Christian G. A. Liebe, University Copper Engraver at Halle, died

1810.

Since Liebe copied several Bause engravings, this is likely to be

one of them.  41 .  Diepenbroick 8203.

Not seen.

 

5.6  Wood engraving by Paul Krey   (1895)

Paul Krey was a reproducing wood engraver at Leipzig.  Vital dates

unknown.

           

Signed at lower right corner: P. Krey. XI.

A superb engraving (18.8 by 13.3 cm), in every detail similar to its    prototype, the Bause engraving. It is interesting to compare Krey’s wood engraving with Bause’s copper engraving (5.3).

Appeared in: Sievers, Wilhelm, Australien und Ozeanien,

Leipzig 1895 (13).

 

5.7   Illustrirte Zeitung wood engraving   (1898)

The anonymous engraver worked from the Halle version (5.1).

Singer (1937) 10765.

Publ. in: Illustrirte Zeitung, Leipzig 110 (1898): 464.

 

5.8   Pen drawing by Rudolf Grüttner   (1956)

After one of the Graff group, looking to right.

Publ. in: Miethke, Helmut, Bewegte Jahre, Berlin: 10.

 

 

 

 

 

The Tischbein and Graff Group of George Forster

 

 

In Frankfurt there is an exquisite painting of G. F., obviously done by a

great master.  He shows us Forster's sensitive and troubled soul.

The painting has traditionally been ascribed to Tischbein.  That ascrip-

tion is reexamined here.

George Forster's interest in having a portrait made of himself is evident

from several of his letters.  On March 3, 1784, he wrote to his friend

Sömmering (or Sömmerring):  "I shall try to persuade the old Tischbein, court

painter, to portray me."  At the end of the same month we read the discourag-

ing note that "Tischbein's eyes are again so bad that there is little hope for

a portrait."  But shortly thereafter Tischbein produced the painting (6.0).

Forster was not elated about its quality.  Two months later his travels took

him to Dresden, where he had the renowned Anton Graff portray him.  Excerpts

from letters to Sömmering show how Forster's judgment of the painting changed

in time:

"Graff painted a magnificent likeness of me. Tischbein's is not

a shadow of it.  I am there, complete with my character, down to the

smallest traits and nuances.  The picture belongs to Spener [Forster's

publisher].  A copy would cost twenty thalers, I believe.  I should

like to order one for you and Therese [Forster's wife].  But now it

cannot be done."  (June 7, 1784)

Subsequently Graff promised him a copy, and produced it.  But for pecuni-

ary reasons it ended up with someone else:

"Neumann in Dresden has my portrait by Graff; and I confess to

you, since I saw it again, and also the original at Spener's, I do not

find it like me any more.  Therese found it far less so.  Therefore it

is hardly so valuable for you as if the resemblance had been decent."

(March 19-20, 1786)

In his letters, therefore. Forster speaks of three paintings: one by

Tischbein and two by Graff.  Only two of the three paintings have come down to

us.  They show G. F. in the same pose.  The question is:  Are they Tischbein's

or Graff's?

G. F. became most unpopular in Germany when he played a leading role in

the Jacobin revolution in Mainz.  Perhaps the paintings spent time in their

owners' attics.  Certainly they changed hands a few times.  One painting

became lost.  The parties most eager to buy and keep them would be the von

Greyerz and von Sömmering families (Forster's and his friend Sömmering's

descendants).  Sometime during this period people may have become puzzled

about who painted the portrait.  One owner was told that its painter was

Tischbein and wrote a note to that effect on the backside of his painting.

Historian Paul Zincke wrote about it in 1913:

"On the verso of the original there is the following note:

'Johann Georg Forster, born in Nassenhuben near Danzig on Nov. 26, 1754,

died in Paris on Jan. 12, 1794.  Painted by J. H. Tischbein, Gallerie-

Direktor in Cassel (in 45 minutes) on foot in 1782 [?], according to

Herr Dir. Pellisier who owns a very similar portrait of Forster by

Tischbein.'" (Zincke, xiv f.)

(I am unable to determine what zu Fuss "on foot" means.)

This note needs some scrutiny, since it appears to be the only basis for

ascribing the Frankfurt painting to Tischbein.

The note was written many years after the painting was painted.  It is

not a primary document.  Moreover, its writer felt that his statement needed

support.  And the best support he could muster was to refer to the owner of

the other painting, who thought that Tischbein was its painter.  Not that this

idea was totally irrational!  There is a perfectiy good excuse for it:  We

have seen that it was erroneously believed that the pictures of the Berger

subgroup had been derived from Graff's painting.  Therefore it seemed logical

that the picture of the other pose "had to be" Tischbein's.

Then, the writer of the note erred on the date.  Zincke, diligent

scholar of Forster literature, placed the bracketed question mark behind the

date in the above quote of 1913.  It should, of course, read 1784, not 1782.

In addition, Tischbein's eyesight was poor in the last years of his

life.  Art scholar Georg Nagler reports that sometimes Tischbein's daughter

had to tell her father what the colors on the palette were.  Tischbein portrayed

Forster at one sitting of only 45 minutes (Zincke, xiv).

Graff, on the other hand, portrayed George Forster in three sessions,

one of them lasting one and a half hours.  He then made a copy of it.

We can recap the following facts:

o  Tischbein painted one "bad" painting.

o  Graff produced two "good" paintings.

o  Two well-finished paintings of the same pose, exquisitely

colored, are extant.

Without pretending to possess any expertise in art, I mention that

Tischbein tends to contrast each illuminated part with a shadow, whereas Graff

is noted for delicate coloring.

Of course, it would be helpful to know the judgment of scholars versed in 18th century art on whether the Frankfurt painting is painted in Tischbein’s style or Graff’s.  

All these difficulties are eliminated if we assume that the two Graff

paintings are the paintings now located in Frankfurt and Bern (7.0 and 7.1).

It was a Mrs. Sophie von Sömmering who bequeathed the Frankfurt painting to

the Ethnographic Museum there (Zincke, xiv); and the Bern painting still

belongs to the von Greyerz family.  Thus, both paintings eventually ended up,

as it were, where Forster had intended them to go.

 

The arguments presented here fall short of proof.  But, in the opinion

of this researcher, they outweigh the solitary clue that the note glued on the

portrait's backside provides.

 

6.0   Painting by Tischbein   (April 1784)

Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1722 - 1789), the elder of this name is

principally noted for his portraits, but he also painted historical and

genre paintings.

George Forster's diary reveals that Tischbein portrayed him in

April of 1784.

Forster's portrait at the Ethnographic Museum in Frankfurt (7.0;

next entry) is generally held to be this painting by Tischbein.  This

view is disputed here, as shown above.

If the Frankfurt painting is not by Tischbein, the Tischbein painting

must be presumed lost.

 

7.0   Frankfurt painting   (June 1784)

Oil on sheet metal.  About 45 by 36 cm.  Front view.

Unsigned.   Fiedler 1203.

The backside has a paper glued to it with handwriting in an old

hand.  It proclaims that the painting was done by Tischbein.  See above

discussion for text of note, and explanation.

This note was probably the only basis for ascribing the painting

to Tischbein.  The ascription is here viewed with reservation.  Instead,

Anton Graff is suggested as its creator.

Because the painter of this painting is not assured, I choose to

call it the Frankfurt painting.

Owner: Museum für Völkerkunde, Frankfurt am Main.

B & W reproductions in:

Zincke, front.

Rave, 160.

Kersten, 2.

Uhlig, front.

Color reproduction in:

G. F. Werke, 17

 

                    

 

                   7.0 Frankfurt                                                         7.1 Bern

 

 

7.1   Bern painting   (1784)

Oil on canvas.  It is very similar to the foregoing painting (7.0), which, however, is painted on sheet metal..   N. i. Fiedler.

Owner: Dr. Georg von Greyerz, Hindelbank near Bern, Switzerland.

According to von Greyerz family tradition, this painting was

copied after Anton Graff's (verbal communication of Mrs. Martha von

Greyerz to the author in 1979).

 

 

7.2   Grossmann painting   (1913)

Painting by Ferdinand A. Grossmann, done about 1913, or later,

obviously after the Frankfurt painting. Fiedler 1211.

Former owner: Stadtarchiv Mainz.

 

 

7.3   Bellen painting   (1951)

In 1951 Richard Bellen copied this painting from the Frankfurt

painting (7.0).  He made Forster smile, failed to emulate Forster's noble

features portray in the original.  Fiedler 1212.

Owner: Stadtarchiv Mainz.

B & W reproductions:

Just, Leo & Mathy, Die Universität Mainz, 1965: 39.

G. F. Werke: 14:39.

Reichardt: [272]

 

 

7.4  Miethke woodcut   (1961)

Artist unknown.  After one of the renderings of this group.

Publ. in: Miethke, Helmut, G. F., Welt reisender, Schriftsteller und

Revolutionär, Halle 1961: paperback cover.

 

 

7.5  Roter Faden three-tone images   (1976)

Graphic design developed by the task group "Wissenschaftliche

Graphik" of the Fachhochschule Wiesbaden. It is derived from the Bellen

painting (7.3).

Publ. in: Roter Faden: on cover and similar picture on page 497.

 


 

 

 

Other Pictures

 

This is a group of pictures that cannot be placed in any of the previous

five groups.

 

 

8.0   Nonexistent picture of J. R. F. by Chodowiecki

Daniel Chodowiecki, eminent etcher and painter, lived

from 1726 to 1801.

There is reference to this supposed picture in Meusel, Museum

(9:473): "Bildnis von Berger nach Chodowiecki gestochen."  The reference was reprinted in subsequent Meusel works and in Goedeke (7:23).

This notice must be regarded as erroneous. Berger's engraving is

after Smith - Wedgwood.  Neither in Forster literature nor in Chodo-

wiecki literature is there any indication that Chodowiecki ever portrayed Forster.

 

8.1   Portrait silhouettes of G. F.   (1784 or earlier)

Artist unknown.

Head facing left.  These silhouettes were probably done from life.

Fiedler 1207.

G. F. occasionally gave his Silhouette to friends, as on April 29,

July 26, and September 11, 1784 (Zincke, Tagebücher).

A few of the silhouettes ended up in museums:

Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv und

  Porträt Sammlung, Pg 3812: 1(2).

Repro. in: Silhouetten aus der Goethezeit, Wien, 1909: 52.

                 Schattenbilder aus der Goethezeit,

                                            Darmstadt, 1946: 24.

Landesbibliothek Magdeburg

Repro. in  G. F. Werke, 15,32.

In 1984 this Silhouette was displayed on a poster for the G. F.

exposition in the pavillions on the Eisenart in Wörlitz.  The designer

was Stefan Liebig.

                                     

8.2   Bosselated wax portraits of G. F. by Bosch   (1784)

Bosselating is the art of creating waxen images.  To eliminate the

annoying translucency of wax, it is mixed with coloring matter.  Wax

medallion potraits were in vogue throughout Europe up until the close of

the 18th century.

Bosch, a wax modeler at Vienna, created a portrait of Forster on

September 12, 1784, and three days later, delivered it to him together

with twelve molded copies.  G. F. at once distributed them to his

Viennese friends (Zincke, Tagebücher :196)

None are known to exist today.

 

 

8.3    Full body Silhouette of G. F.   (Date unknown)

Artist unknown.

G. F. standing, profile to left, holds a model of a sailing ship

in hand.  If this Silhouette was created from life, as it well might,

then we have here a rare glimpse of Forster's handsome posture.  But

then again, it may simply be derived from a head Silhouette and fur-

nished with a standared body.  Fiedler 1208.

Reproduced often, for example in:

Schattenbilder der Goethezeit, Leipzig 1966: pl.19.

G. F. Werke in 4 Bänden 4: front. Profile to right.

 

8.4   Schattenrisse Silhouette of J. R. F.   (1784)

Not viewed.  Meusel, Museum 9:473.  Size: 8vo.

Publ. in: Schattenrisse aller öffentlichen Lehrer

... zu Halle, 1784.

 

8.5   Stipple engraving of J. R. F. by Schwenterley

Heinrich Schwenterley (1749 - 1815) was University Copper Engraver

at Göttingen.  Art lexicographer Nagler calls him a common practitioner

of small renown.

Not viewed.

 

8.6   Copper engraving of J. R. F. by C. Goepffert

C. Goepffert (1760 - 1788), copper engraver in stippling tech-

nique.

Stipple engraving, 4to, prototype unknown.

Not viewed.  Meusel, Teutsches Künstlerlexikon III (1814): 91 asks,

"drawn by him?"  Thieme-Becker adds the remark "of his own design."

This could mean that he merely created his own surround.  Singer (1931)

25801 and 25817.

 

8.7   Neue Quartalschrift portrait   (1792)

Not viewed.  Meusel, Museum 9:473.

Publ. in: Neue Quartalschrift zum Unterricht und zur Unterhaltung

... 2 (1792): frontisp.

It is a half-length portrait (Brustbild).

 

8.8  India ink drawing by Jakob Hoch

Johann Jakob Hoch (1750 - 1829) of Mainz painted, among other

subjects, historical scenes in oil and gouache.

This painting shows a night session of the Jacobin Club in Mainz.

"The clubbist at the lectern is said to represent Forster," states the

caption under the reproduction cited below.  However, the artist hardly

intended to portray any particular person in the group of smallish

figures.

Owner: Stadtbibliothek Mainz.

Repro. in:  G. F. Werke in 4 Bänden 3:577.

 

8.9   Allgemeines Historisches Porträtwerk portrait   (1874)

Not seen.

Publ. in:  Seidlitz, Woldemar, Allgemeines historisches

Portraitwerk, 5 vols., Munich 1874.

 

 

8.10  Roter Faden Silhouette of the twelve-year-old George (1976)

Profile to left. G. F. sits on a stool, bent over, reading a book that he

holds in hand. The London skyline is in the background, white on gray.

Envisioned in the unknown artist's mind, this figure is a portrayal of G.

F.'s eagemess to leam rather than a bona fide portrait. But it is a plausible

likeness of the youth.

Publ in: Roter Faden: 21.

 

 

8.11 Biernath bronze relief piaque of G. F. (1990 or beforc)

Irmgard Biermath, a sculptress of Mainz, created this bronze. She

bequeathed it to the City of Mainz. On the occasion of the bicentennial of

Forsters death the plaque was placed at his residence: Universitätstrasse 5,

Mainz.

Bronze piaque 72 by 53 cm with inscription "GEORG FORSTER 1754 - 1794"

Though obviously derived from the Frankfurt painting, it is more than a

copy. "As the Mainz sculptress conveyed in conversation, she produced this

creation without commission, on her own initiative. Differing from Tischbein,

in his time .... she intended to bring forth Forster's suffering and tragical traits"

(Reichardt 316, No. 330).

Reproduced in: Reichardt 317.

 

 

8.12 Delose painting of G. F.  (1788)

Delos or Delose was a miniature and portrait painter, disciple of the

Academy of Drawing at Mannheim.

Bom in the Palatinate; vital dates unknown.

This painting was found only recently.

Oil on canvas, 73 by 59 cm.

Here G. F. poses with an open book in his hand. Signed in upper

right comer: "P.[?] De Lose pinxit A 1788".

Color reproduction in: Reichardt [138].

 

 

                              

 

                                   8.12 Delose

 

 

The Delose painting is rather difficult to evaluate.

Forster does not mention Delose in his letters. It is doubtful that Forster

sat for Delose.

A comparison with the Frankfurt painting is hardly out of order. Looking

at the two paintings (7.0 and 8.12) side by side we get almost the feeling that

we are dealing with two different men.

But the paintings have the following similarities:  The pose, including the

angle of view, is the same. Even the white neck cloth on the Frankfurt painting

seems to be present on Delose's painting. But Delose renders it skin-colored, so

that it becomes Forster's neck.

And finally, there is the matter of the English marine uniform, which

Forster allegedly wears. This is the claim of Rolf Reichardt in Reichardt, 157.

Forster was a civilian on Captain Cook's voyage, not a marine. The notion that he

later wore a uniform must be rejected. It is not in keeping with his character.

I would venture to conclude that, more likely than not. Delose used the

Frankfurt painting as a model when he created his Forster painting.

 

 

8.13 Rodewald medal (1987)

Medal for the Bicentennial of the French Revolution.

Heinz Rodewald, a medalist of Berlin, created this medal. On the reverse it

shows portraits of G. F. Rebmann and G. Forster. Reichardt 316, No. 321.

Owner: Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Wörlitz, Oranienbaum und

Luisium.

Not viewed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                               Summary

 

More than fifty portraits of the two Forsters are here catalogued and described for the first time. The provenance of each portrait is traced. It turns out that among the extant portraits there are only five for which the two men sat. The others derive from these five. This forms the basis for arranging the portraits into groups.

Portraiture is a most difficult art form.  It is fortunate that the artists of these five portraits were truly competent.  They succeeded in capturing their subjects' personality.  They represented them as they saw them, without the pretentiousness that a munificent patron might have engendered.

Both men were eminent scholars, but for centuries neither reached the

renown that their scientific and literary achievements warranted.  Forster research was neglected for centuries. Portraits play only a minor part in the overall scheme of this topic. A good deal of disarray emerges regarding the source of some derived pictures.

The Rigaud painting gave rise to a whole group of derived depictions of George Forster, here called the Berger subgroup. As the true origin of these subsequent depictions was not recognized, they were held to stem from a "lost painting by Anton Graff.” 

This is chronologically impossible. But now the confusion takes on a life of its own. The fallacious premises lead inevitably to a fallacious conclusion:

 

The alleged reproductions of the “lost Graff painting” provided a good clue what it must have looked like. Since the painting in Frankfurt presented George Forster in a different pose, it “had to be” painted by another painter. Thus it was logical to attribute it to Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Elder, because he was known to have portrayed Forster. I consider this attribution erroneous.

 

But if one pursues the concept that Tischbein’s painting is lost, not Graff’s, and that Graff painted the Frankfurt painting, then a number of annoying inconsistencies vanish.

 

In this way, the incorrect ascription of some secondary pictures led to the more serious consequence that even a primary painting was attributed to the wrong artist.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                     Übersicht

 

 

Mehr als fünfzig Bildnisse der beiden Forster werden hier zum ersten Mal in ein Verzeichnis aufgenommen und beschrieben. Die Herkunft eines jeden Porträts wird geprüft. Dabei stellt sich heraus, dass es unter den vorhandenen Porträts nur fünf Urbilder gibt, für die die zwei Männer gesessen haben. Das bildet die Grundlage für die Einordnung der Porträts in Gruppen.

Porträtieren ist eine sehr schwierige Kunstform. Wir sind begünstigt durch den Umstand, dass alle vier Künstler, die die beiden Forster nach der Natur porträtierten, bestens befähigt waren, ihre Persönlichkeit darzustellen.

Weder Vater noch Sohn erlangte je die Würdigung, zu der ihre Leistungen sie berechtigten. Die Forster-Forschung wurde jahrhundertelang vernachlässigt. In ihrem Bereich kommt dem Thema der Bildnisse ohnehin nur geringe Bedeutung zu. Es ist  kaum verwunderlich, dass Verwirrung darin herrschte. Es bestand Unklarheit über den Ursprung einiger Nachbildungen, und das hatte die verhängnisvolle Folge, dass sogar ein Originalgemälde einem falschen Künstler zugeschrieben wurde:

 

Das Gemälde von Rigaud war das Vorbild von etwa zehn Nachbildungen, welche hier unter der Berger – Untergruppe aufgezählt werden. Allen voran steht der vortreffliche Stahlstich von August Weger. Aber weil der wahre Ursprung dieser Nachschöpfungen nicht erkannt wurde, nahm man an, dass sie einem “verschollenen” Gemälde Anton Graffs nachgebildet seien.

 

Das ist chronologisch unmöglich. Aber die Verwirrung breitet sich aus. Die unwahren Voraussetzungen mussten zu einem Fehlschluss führen.

 

Mit den genannten Nachbildungen konnte man sich einen Begriff davon machen, wie das “verschollene Bild von Graff” ausgesehen haben “muss.” Weil Georg Forster im bekannten Gemälde zu Frankfurt in einer andern Körperstellung dargestellt wird, “musste” es von einem andern Künstler stammen. Nun war es nichts weniger als logisch, das Bild Johann Heinrich Tischbein dem Aelteren zuzuschreiben, denn es war ja bekannt, dass er ein Bild Forsters gemalt hatte. Diese Zuschreibung halte ich für irrig.

 

Wenn man aber die Ansicht verfolgt, dass nicht Graffs Bild verschollen ist, sondern Tischbeins, und dass Graffs Bild das in Frankfurt befindliche Gemälde ist, so scheiden eine Anzahl von störenden Unstimmigkeiten aus.

 

Auf diese Weise führte die fehlerhafte Zuschreibung einiger Nachbildungen dazu, dass sogar ein Originalbild dem falschen Maler zugeschrieben wurde.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                           References Cited

 

 

Beaglehole, J.:  The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of

Discovery, Cambridge 1969

Beddie, M.  Bibliography of Captain James Cook. 2nd ed., Sydney 1970

Diepenbroick-Grüter, Hans; Allgemeiner Porträt-Katalog, Hamburg 1931

Fiedler, Horst:  G. F. Bibliographie 1767-1970, Berlin 1971

Geiger, Ludwig: “Aus Therese Hubers Herzensleben”

G. F. Werke, Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1958 ff.

G. F. Werke in vier Bänden, Frankfurt am Main 1967-70

Goedeke, Karl:  Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, 1857-81

(3 vols.); 2nd ed. 1884-1913 (10 vols.)

Hoare, Michael: The Tactless Philosopher, Melbourne 1976

——        ed. The Resolution Journal of J. R. F. 1772-1775, London 1982.

Kersten, Kurt;  Der Weltumsegler, Bern 1957

Meusel, Johann:  Museum f. Künstler u. f. Kunstliebhaber, 1789

Nagler, Georg:  Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, Linz a. d. Donau 1835-52

Reichardt, Rolf, and Genevieve Roche, eds. Weltbiirger - Europäer - Deutscher

Franke. G. F. zum 200. Todestag. Ausstellungskatalog. Mainz 1994

Rave, Paul  Das Jahrhundert Goethe's, 1949

Roter Faden zur Ausstellung G. F., Frankfurt am Main 1976

Sievers, Wilhelm: Australien und Ozeanien

Singer, Hans:  Allgemeiner Bildniskatalog, 1931

——       Neuer Bildniskatalog, Leipzig 1937

Thieme – Becker:  Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler, 1907-50

Uhlig, Ludwig:  G. F., Tübingen 1965

Zincke, Paul and Leitzmann, eds. G. F. Tagebücher, Berlin 1914

 

 

 

 

                     Illustration Sources

 

 

1.0 Smith                        "City of Nottingham Museums", England.

2.0 Smith                        Same

3.0  Rigaud                     Fiedler, Horst et al, Georg Forster – Seine

Beziehungen zu Wörlitz, 1975: front cover.

   Photo Walter Wachter, Schaan.

4.1 Berger                      Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, 51 (1782): front.

4.2 Relief portrait            G. F. Werke

4.4 GH & XKA              Geiger

4.10  Schellbach             Photograph by Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Wörlitz,

                                                Oranienbaum und Luisium.

4.5   Weger                    Moleschott, Georg Forster, 1854: front.

5.0 (Lucerne)                 Kersten, Weltumsegler, 1957: 32.

5.1  Halle                       http://mmvr.burg-halle.de/~hanisch/index.php?id=451&type=2

5.2  Berlin                      Hoare, Tactless Philosopher, 1976: 103.

5.2  Bause                      Hoare, Tactless Philosopher, 1976: 102

5.6  Krey                       Sievers, Wilhelm, Australien und Ozeanien,

Leipzig 1895 (13).

7.0  Frankfurt                 Marbacher Magazin 65 (1993): 13.

7.1   Bern                       Photograph by Martha von Greyerz, 1979.

8.12 Delose                    Reichardt, Weltbürger..., 1994: [138].

                                    Photo Walter Lhotzky.

 

 

 

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Portrait Index

 

Abramson Medal  1.2        

Allg. hist. Porträtwerk portrait  8.9

Bause engraving  5.3

Bellen painting  7.3

Berger engraving of  G. F.  4.0

Berger etching of both Forsters  4.1

Bern painting  7.1

Beyel engraving  3.6

Biernath bronze plaque  8.11

Bosch wax portrait  8.2

Chalk drawings of G. F.  3.2, 3.3

Chalk drawing of  J. R. F.  3.4, 3.5

Chodowiecki painting  8.0

D. R. wood engraving                                                                                                                         

Delose painting 8.12

Ephemeriden engraving  4.2

Frankfurt painting  7.0

G. H. & X. K. A. wood engraving  4.4

Goepffert engraving  8.6

Graff paintings of  J. R. F.  5.0, (5.1, 5.2)

Graff painting of  G. F.  (7.0)

Grossmann painting  7.3

Grüttner pen drawings  3.8, 5.8

Hader painting  4.8

Halle engraving  1.4

Hoch ink painting  8.8

Illustrirte Zeitung wood engraving  5.7

Krey wood engraving  5.6

Liebe engraving  5.5

Liebig poster 8.1

de Mayr engraving  5.4

Miethke woodcut  7.4

Neue Quartalschrift engraving  8.7

Postage stamp  3.9

Relief portrait  4.3

Rigaud painting  3.0, (3.1 copy)

Rodewald medal  8.13

Roter Faden line drawing  4.9

Roter Faden three-tone images  7.5

S. H. gouache  4.7

Schellbach plaque 4.10

Schwenterley engraving  8.5

Silhouettes of  J.R.F.  1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 8.4.

Silhouettes of  G.F.  8.1, 8.3, 8.10

Smith medallions  1.0, 2.0

Tischbein painting  6.0

Weger engravings  4.5, 4.6

Warrington silhouette  1.5

Wiss. Beiträge silhouette 1.6

Whates caricature  1.1

 

 

 

 

 

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